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Contributions of Churches and Civil Society to Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation


1

Introduction

1.1

Challenges

1.1.1

Globalisation: Developments

1.1.2

The key global players

1.1.3

Civil Society and the churches

1.1.4

The search for a relevant ethic

1.2

The development of common positions on justice, peace and creation in the ecumenical movement

1.2.1

The historical background

1.2.2

Stockholm 1925: A new social vision for the churches

1.2.3

Fanoe 1934

1.2.4

Oxford 1937

1.2.5

Amsterdam 1948

1.2.6

Evanston 1954

1.2.7

New Delhi 1961

1.2.7.1

Church and Society 1966

1.2.8

Uppsala 1968

1.2.8.1

Stockholm 1972

1.2.9

Nairobi 1975

1.2.9.1

Faith, Science and the Future 1979

1.2.10

Vancouver 1983

1.2.10.1

Glion 1986

1.2.10.2

Geneva 1986

1.3

The contextual points of entry into the Conciliar Process in the different world regions

1.3.1

Africa

1.3.2

Asia

1.3.2.1

Minamata 1989

1.3.2.2

Western Asia ("Middle East")

1.3.3

Pacific

1.3.4

Australia and New Zealand

1.3.5

Latin America

1.3.5.1

The Caribean

1.3.6

North America

1.3.7

Europe

1.3.7.1

Basel 1989

1.3.7.1.1

KAIROS

1.3.7.2

Asymmetry of learning processes

1.4

The input of the Christian World Communions

1.4.1

The Orthodox Church

1.4.2

World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC)

1.4.3

Lutheran World Federation (LWF)

1.4.4

The Peace Churches

1.4.5

The Roman Catholic Church

1.5

The Ecumenical World Convocation in Seoul

1.5.1

The Draft for the Final Document

1.5.2

The Beginning

1.5.3

Progress and results

1.5.3.1

Roman Catholic message

1.5.3.2

Contribution of the Evangelicals

1.5.3.3

Unresolved questions

1.5.4

Secular parallels and consequences

1.6

The continuing JPIC-process

1.6.1

Canberra 1991

1.6.2

Stockholm 1991

1.6.3

Bossey 1991

1.6.4

Rio 1992

1.6.4.1

The Rio Declaration

1.6.4.2

Agenda 21

1.6.4.3

The Rio conventions

1.6.4.4

Follow-ups

1.6.4.4.1

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

1.6.5

Vienna 1993

1.6.6

Chicago 1993

1.6.7

Cairo 1994

1.6.8

Copenhagen 1995

1.6.8.1

The impact of NGOs in Copenhagen

1.6.9

Beijing 1995

1.6.10

Five years after Rio

1.6.11

The limited succes of UNCED

1.6.12

Beyond globalisation - globalisation from beyond

1.6.13

Preliminary results

1.7

The continuation of the Conciliar Process

1.7.1

Roende 1993

1.7.2

Crete 1995

1.7.3

Graz ahead

1.7.3.1

German preparations: The grassroots assembly in Erfurt 1996

1.7.3.2

German preparations: The assembly of the delegates in Erfurt 1996

1.7.3.3

Graz 1997: Second European Ecumenical Assembly

1.7.4

CP 1997

1.7.5

CP 1998

1.7.6

CP 1999

1.7.7

CP 2000

1.7.8

CP 2001

1.7.9

CP 2002

1.8

Weaving a network on the road to an all-Christian Council

1.8.1

Self-commitment and networking

1.8.2

On the issue of a Council

1.8.3

Christian churches, civil society and JPIC

1.8.4

Consequences in the local context

1.8.5

Hope for the new century

2

Analysis

2.1

Justice

2.1.1

General remarks

2.1.2

Democracy and development

2.1.2.1

The United Nations - basic element of the international system

2.1.2.1.1

Main organs

2.1.2.1.2

Research institutions

2.1.2.1.3

Special agencies

2.1.2.1.4

Problems and perspectives

2.1.3

Justice, development and the limits of resources

2.1.4

Economical questions

2.1.4.1

Market economy

2.1.4.1.1

Limited capacity of market economy

2.1.4.2

Structure of world economy

2.1.4.2.1

Economic regionalisation

2.1.4.2.2

World Bank - International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

2.1.4.2.3

International Monetary Fund

2.1.4.2.4

World Trade Organisation

2.1.4.2.5

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

2.1.4.2.6

Transnational Corporations

2.1.4.2.7

Debt crisis

2.1.4.2.8

Consequences of the debt crisis

2.1.5

Growth of population

2.1.6

Basic needs

2.1.6.1

Some Tendencies in Development

2.1.6.2

Distribution of wealth and poverty

2.1.6.2.1

Consequences of poverty

2.1.6.2.2

Nutrition and malnutrition

2.1.6.3

Housing

2.1.6.3.1

Cities' development

2.1.6.4

Health and life expectancy

2.1.6.4.1

Access to clean water

2.1.6.5

Education

2.1.6.6

Labour and unemployment

2.1.6.7

Access to land

2.1.7

Human rights and violations of human rights

2.1.7.1

Minorities

2.1.7.2

Refugees

2.1.7.2.1

Causes for increasing numbers of refugees

2.1.7.3

Racism

2.1.7.3.1

Indigenous people

2.1.7.4

Women

2.1.7.5

Children and future generations

2.1.7.6

Differently abled people

2.2

Peace

2.2.1

Elements of a working definition

2.2.1.1

On the origins of violence

2.2.1.2

Regarding the historical dimension

2.2.2

Militarisation

2.2.2.1

Arms expenditures and disarmament

2.2.3

Weapons of mass destruction

2.2.3.1

Nuclear weapons and nuclear danger

2.2.3.2

Chemical weapons

2.2.3.3

Biological weapons

2.2.4

Conventional weapons

2.2.5

Arms trade

2.3

Creation

2.3.1

Elements for a working definition

2.3.1.1

Contexts

2.3.2

State of resources

2.3.2.1

Energy resources

2.3.2.1.1

Traffic

2.3.2.1.2

Use of nuclear power and follow-up costs

2.3.2.2

Greenhouse gases

2.3.2.2.1

Atmosphere and ozone depletion

2.3.2.3

Deforestation

2.3.2.4

Degradation of arable land

2.3.2.5

Water supply

2.3.2.6

Endangered biodiversity

2.3.3

Misuse of biotechnology

2.4

Interconnected dimensions of the crisis

2.4.1

Interconnectedness / linkages

2.5

The deeper roots of the present crisis

2.5.1

The prevailing view of life

2.5.1.1

Significance of science

2.5.1.2

Ideologies

2.5.1.3

Fundamentalism

2.5.2

Destroyed community

3

Criteria and decision

3.1

Our common faith, metanoia and vision

3.1.1

The common faith

3.1.1.1

The place of humanity in the whole of creation

3.1.1.2

God's covenant with humanity

3.1.1.3

Faith in the God of justice, peace and creation

3.1.1.4

The ground for Christian hope

3.1.1.5

One in Christ - even yet divided

3.1.2

Confession of sin

3.1.2.1

Confession of sin: divisions among the churches

3.1.2.2

Problem of proselytism

3.1.2.3

Relationship between Christians and Jews

3.1.2.4

Relationship between women and men

3.1.2.5

Rupture between the generations

3.1.2.6

European peoples' delusion of superiority

3.1.2.6.1

Abuse of creation

3.1.2.7

Repentance does not hide the differences

3.1.3

Metanoia

3.1.3.1

Gospel and culture

3.1.3.2

Dialogue with people of living faiths

3.1.3.2.1

Our relationship with Judaism

3.1.3.2.2

Relationship with Islam

3.1.3.3

Dialogue with different ideologies

3.1.3.4

Declaration on a global ethic

3.1.4

Vision

3.2

New Values

3.2.1

Justice

3.2.1.1

Democracy and participation

3.2.1.2

Human rights

3.2.1.3

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

3.2.1.4

Preferable option for the poor

3.2.1.4.1

Eradication of poverty

3.2.1.5

Guidelines for sharing

3.2.1.6

Economy

3.2.1.6.1

Ecumenical discussion on economic questions

3.2.1.6.2

No area of our life outside the criterion Jesus Christ

3.2.1.6.3

New international economic order

3.2.1.6.4

Market economy in need of reform

3.2.1.6.5

New concepts of value

3.2.1.6.6

Orientation frame for economy

3.2.1.7

Equal rights for all races

3.2.1.8

Equal rights for men and women

3.2.1.9

Ecumenial movement and the question of sexuality

3.2.1.10

Children and further generations

3.2.2

Peace

3.2.2.1

Overcoming the institution of war

3.2.2.2

Prevention of conflict and non-violent conflict resolution

3.2.2.2.1

Ecumenical Program to Overcome Violence

3.2.2.3

Peace and environmental questions

3.2.3

Creation

3.2.3.1

Rights of nature

3.2.3.2

Democracy and environmental questions

3.2.3.3

The polluter pays principle

3.2.3.4

In harmony with God's creation

3.2.4

Linkages

3.2.5

Overlapping issues

3.2.5.1

Communication and truth

3.2.5.2

Science and ethics

3.2.5.3

New model for civilization

3.2.5.4

Vision for the future work of the WCC

3.3

Continuing theological work

4

Possibilities for practical action

4.1

Democracy and accountability

4.1.1

Initiatives for democratisation of the UN

4.1.1.1

NGOs and the UN

4.1.2

Human rights

4.1.2.1

Equal rights for indigenous peoples

4.1.2.2

World day of prayer on racism

4.1.2.3

Minorities with regard to sexual orientation

4.1.2.4

Refugees and migrants

4.1.2.5

Women

4.1.2.6

Children

4.1.2.7

Access to education and science

4.1.3

Sustainable development

4.1.3.1

Contextuality: Western production and consumption patterns are no sustainable paradigm for the future

4.1.3.2

New development paradigms

4.1.3.3

Combatting poverty and satisfying basic needs

4.1.3.3.1

Innovative proposals for financing poverty alleviation

4.1.3.4

Social monitoring of poverty and wealth

4.1.3.5

Reducing the debt burden

4.1.3.6

Improving official development assistance

4.1.3.7

Limits of growth for the rich

4.1.3.8

Just economic order

4.1.3.9

New world trade system

4.1.3.10

Regulations for TNC's

4.1.3.10.1

Concerned consumer's associations

4.1.3.11

Stabilising commodity prices

4.1.3.12

New price system including environmental and resource costs of production

4.1.3.13

Transfer of technology

4.1.3.14

Agrarian reform

4.1.3.15

Rights of indigenous people

4.1.4

Alternative ways of production

4.1.4.1

Banks with ecological and social orientation

4.2

Peace

4.2.1

International security system

4.2.1.1

Strengthening the international system

4.2.1.2

Demilitarization of international relations

4.2.1.3

Disarmament

4.2.1.4

Biological, chemical and conventional weapons

4.2.1.5

Arms trade

4.2.1.6

Nuclear weapons

4.2.1.7

Dismantling of military industrial complexes

4.2.1.8

Conscientious objection to military service

4.2.1.9

Objection to tax for military purposes

4.2.1.10

Peace services

4.2.1.11

Education for peace

4.2.2

Culture of non-violence

4.3

Integrity of creation

4.3.1

Ecological planning of resources

4.3.1.1

Energy

4.3.1.2

Sustainability of the atmosphere

4.3.1.2.1

Reduction of greenhouse gases

4.3.1.3

New concepts for transportation/traffic

4.3.1.4

Preserving the forests

4.3.1.5

Preserving the biological diversity

4.3.1.6

Biotechnology

4.4

Overlapping issues

4.4.1

Science and research

4.4.2

Continuing work of the ecumenical movement

4.4.2.1

Cooperation with people of different faiths

4.4.3

New lifestyle

5

Appendix

5.1

Abbreviations

5.2

Bibliography

5.2.1

WCC Assemblies and Ecumenical Assemblies

5.2.2

For Further Reading

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