V. Institutional arrangements
286. The Platform for Action establishes a set of actions that should lead to
fundamental change. Immediate action and accountability are essential if the
targets are to be met by the year 2000. Implementation is primarily the responsibility
of Governments, but is also dependent on a wide range of institutions in the
public, private and non-governmental sectors at the community, national, subregional/regional
and international levels.
287. During the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985), many
institutions specifically devoted to the advancement of women were established
at the national, regional and international levels. At the international
level, the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement
of Women (INSTRAW), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM),
and the Committee to monitor the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
Discrimination against Women were established. These entities, along with the
Commission on the Status of Women and its secretariat, the Division for the
Advancement of Women, became the main institutions in the United Nations
specifically devoted to women's advancement globally. At the national level,
a number of countries established or strengthened national mechanisms to plan,
advocate for and monitor progress in the advancement of women.
288. Implementation of the Platform for Action by national,
subregional/regional and international institutions, both public and private,
would be facilitated by transparency, by increased linkages between networks
and organizations and by a consistent flow of information among all concerned.
Clear objectives and accountability mechanisms are also required. Links with
other institutions at the national, subregional/regional and international
levels and with networks and organizations devoted to the advancement of women
289. Non-governmental and grass-roots organizations have a specific role to
play in creating a social, economic, political and intellectual climate based
on equality between women and men. Women should be actively involved in the
implementation and monitoring of the Platform for Action.
290. Effective implementation of the Platform will also require changes in
the internal dynamics of institutions and organizations, including values,
behaviour, rules and procedures that are inimical to the advancement of women.
Sexual harassment should be eliminated.
291. National, subregional/regional and international institutions should
have strong and clear mandates and the authority, resources and accountability
mechanisms needed for the tasks set out in the Platform for Action. Their
methods of operation should ensure efficient and effective implementation of
the Platform. There should be a clear commitment to international norms and
standards of equality between women and men as a basis for all actions.
292. To ensure effective implementation of the Platform for Action and to
enhance the work for the advancement of women at the national, subregional/
regional and international levels, Governments, the United Nations system and
all other relevant organizations should promote an active and visible policy
of mainstreaming a gender perspective, inter alia, in the monitoring and
evaluation of all policies and programmes.