Eucharist -- II. The Meaning of the Eucharist
E2. The eucharist is essentially the sacrament of the gift which God makes
to us in Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit. Every Christian receives
this gift of salvation through communion in the body and blood of Christ. In
the eucharistic meal, in the eating and drinking of the bread and wine, Christ
grants communion with himself. God himself acts, giving life to the body of
Christ and renewing each member. In accordance with Christ's promise, each baptized
member of the body of Christ receives in the eucharist the assurance of the
forgiveness of sins (Matt. 26:28) and the pledge of eternal life John 6:51-58).
Although the eucharist is essentially one complete act, it will be considered
here under the following aspects: thanksgiving to the Father, memorial of Christ,
invocation of the Spirit, communion of the faithful, meal of the Kingdom.
A. The Eucharist as Thanksgiving to the Father
E3. The eucharist, which always includes both word and sacrament, is a proclamation
and a celebration of the work of God. It is the great thanksgiving to the Father
for everything accomplished in creation, redemption and sanctification, for
everything accomplished by God now in the Church and in the world in spite of
the sins of human beings, for everything that God will accomplish in bringing
the Kingdom to fulfilment. Thus the eucharist is the benediction (berakah) by
which the Church expresses its thankfulness for all God's benefits.
E4. The eucharist is the great sacrifice of praise by which the Church speaks
on behalf of the whole creation. For the world which God has reconciled is present
at every eucharist: in the bread and wine, in the persons of the faithful, and
in the prayers they offer for themselves and for all people. Christ unites the
faithful with himself and includes their prayers within his own intercession
so that the faithful are transfigured and their prayers accepted. This sacrifice
of praise is possible only through Christ, with him and in him. The bread and
wine, fruits of the earth and of human labour, are presented to the Father in
faith and thanksgiving. The eucharist thus signifies what the world is to become:
an offering and hymn of praise to the Creator, a universal communion in the
body of Christ, a kingdom of Justice, love and peace in the Holy Spirit.
B. The Eucharist as Anamnesis or Memorial of Christ
E5. The eucharist is the memorial of the crucified and risen Christ, i.e. the
living and effective sign of his sacrifice, accomplished once and for all on
the cross and still operative on behalf of all humankind. The biblical idea
of memorial as applied to the eucharist refers to this present efficacy of God's
work when it is celebrated by God's people in a liturgy.
E6. Christ himself with all that he has accomplished for us and for all creation
(in his incarnation, servanthood, ministry, teaching, suffering, sacrifice,
resurrection, ascension and sending of the Spirit) is present in this anamnesis,
granting us communion with himself. The eucharist is also the foretaste of his
parousia and of the final kingdom.
E7. The anamnesis in which Christ acts through the joyful celebration of his
Church is thus both representation and anticipation. It is not only a calling
to mind of what is past and of its significance. It is the Church's effective
proclamation of God's mighty acts and promises.
E8. Representation and anticipation are expressed in thanksgiving and intercession.
The Church, gratefully recalling God's mighty acts of redemption, beseeches
God to give the benefits of these acts to every human being. In thanksgiving
and intercession, the Church is united with the Son, its great High Priest and
Intercessor (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25). The eucharist is the sacrament of the unique
sacrifice of Christ, who ever lives to make intercession for us. It is the memorial
of all that God has done for the salvation of the world. What it was God's will
to accomplish in the incarnation, life, death, resurrection and ascension of
Christ, God does not repeat. These events are unique and can neither be repeated
nor prolonged. In the memorial of the eucharist, however, the Church offers
its intercession in communion with Christ, our great High Priest.
It is in the light of the significance of the eucharist as intercession that
references to the eucharist in Catholic theology as "propitiatory sacrifice"
may be understood. The understanding is that there is only one expiation,
that of the unique sacrifice of the cross, made actual in the eucharist and
presented before the Father in the intercession of Christ and of the Church
for all humanity.
In the light of the biblical conception of memorial, all churches might want
to review the old controversies about "sacrifice" and deepen their understanding
of the reasons why other traditions than their own have either used or rejected
E9. The anamnesis of Christ is the basis and source of all Christian prayer.
So our prayer relies upon and is united with the continual intercession of the
risen Lord. In the eucharist, Christ empowers us to live with him, to suffer
with him and to pray through him as justified sinners, joyfully and freely fulfilling
E10. In Christ we offer ourselves as a living and holy sacrifice in our daily
lives (Rom. 12:1; 1 Peter 2:5); this spiritual worship, acceptable to God, is
nourished in the eucharist, in which we are sanctified and reconciled in love,
in order to be servants of reconciliation in the world.
E11. United to our Lord and in communion with all the saints and martyrs, we
are renewed in the covenant sealed by the blood of Christ.
E12. Since the anamnesis of Christ is the very content of the preached Word
as it is of the eucharistic meal, each reinforces the other. The celebration
of the eucharist properly includes the proclamation of the Word.
E13. The words and acts of Christ at the institution of the eucharist stand
at the heart of the celebration; the eucharistic meal is the sacrament of the
body and blood of Christ, the sacrament of his real presence. Christ fulfills
in a variety of ways his promise to be always with his own even to the end of
the world. But Christ's mode of presence in the eucharist is unique. Jesus said
over the bread and wine of the eucharist: "This is my body . . . this is my
blood . . . " What Christ declared is true, and this truth is fulfilled every
time the eucharist is celebrated. The Church confesses Christ's real, living
and active presence in the eucharist. While Christ's real presence in the eucharist
does not depend on the faith of the individual, all agree that to discern the
body and blood of Christ, faith is required.
Many churches believe that by the words of Jesus and by the power of the Holy
Spirit, the bread and wine of the eucharist become, in a real though mysterious
manner, the body and blood of the risen Christ, i.e., of the living Christ
present in all his fullness. Under the signs of bread and wine the deepest
reality is the total being of Christ who comes 'to us in order to feed us
and transform our entire being. Some other churches, while affirming a real
presence of Christ at the eucharist, do not link that presence so definitely
with the signs of bread and wine. The decision remains for the churches whether
this difference can be accommodated within the convergence formulated in the
C. The Eucharist as Invocation of the Spirit
E14. The Spirit makes the crucified and risen Christ really present to us in
the eucharistic meal, fulfilling the promise contained in the words of institution.
The presence of Christ is clearly the centre of the eucharist, and the promise
contained in the words of institution is therefore fundamental to the celebration.
Yet it is the Father who is the primary origin and final fulfilment of the eucharistic
event. The incarnate Son of God by and in whom it is accomplished is its living
centre. The Holy Spirit is the immeasurable strength of love which makes it
possible and continues to make it effective. The bond between the eucharistic
celebration and the mystery of the Triune God reveals the role of the Holy Spirit
as that of the One who makes the historical words of Jesus present and alive.
Being assured by Jesus' promise in the words of institution that it will be
answered, the Church prays to the Father for the gift of the Holy Spirit in
order that the eucharistic event may be a reality: the real presence of the
crucified and risen Christ giving his life for all humanity.
This is not to spiritualize the eucharistic presence of Christ but to affirm
the indissoluble union between the Son and the Spirit. This union makes it
clear that the eucharist is not a magical or mechanical action but a prayer
addressed to the rather, one which emphasizes the Church's utter dependence.
There is an intrinsic relationship between the words of institution, Christ's
promise, and the eplklesis, the invocation of the Spirit, in the liturgy.
The epiklesis in relation to the words of institution is located differently
in various liturgical traditions. In the early liturgies the whole "prayer
action" was thought of as bringing about the reality proms . sed by Christ.
The invocation of the Spirit was made both on the community and on the elements
of bread and wine. Recovery of such an understanding may help us overcome
our difficulties concerning a special moment Of consecration.
E15. It is in virtue of the living word of Christ and by the power of the Holy
Spirit that the bread and wine become the sacramental signs of Christ's body
and blood. They remain so for the purpose of communion.
In the history of the Church there have been various attempts to understand
the mystery of the real and unique presence of Christ in the eucharist. Some
are content merely to affirm this presence without seeking to explain it.
Others consider it necessary to assert a change wrought by the Holy Spirit
and Christ's words, in consequence of which there is no longer just ordinary
bread and wine but the body and blood of Christ. Others again have developed
an explanation of the real presence which, though not claiming to exhaust
the significance of the mystery, seeks to protect it from damaging interpretations.
E16. The whole action of the eucharist has an "epikletic" character because
it depends upon the work of the Holy Spirit. In the words of the liturgy, this
aspect of the eucharist finds varied expression.
E17. The Church, as the community of the new covenant, confidently invokes
the Spirit, in order that it may be sanctified and renewed, led into all justice,
truth and unity, and empowered to fulfil its mission in the world.
E18. The Holy Spirit through the eucharist gives a foretaste of the Kingdom
of God: the Church receives the life of the new creation and the assurance of
the Lord's return.
D. The Eucharist as Communion of the Faithful
E19. The eucharistic communion with Christ who nourishes the life of the Church
is at the same time communion within the body of Christ which is the Church.
The sharing in one bread and the common cup in a given place demonstrates and
effects the oneness of the sharers with Christ and with their fellow sharers
in all times and places. It is in the eucharist that the community of God's
people is fully manifested. Eucharistic celebrations always have to do with
the whole Church, and the whole Church is involved in each local eucharistic
celebration. In so far as a church claims to be a manifestation of the whole
Church, it will take care to order its own life in ways which take seriously
the interests and concerns of other churches.
Since the earliest days, baptism has been understood as the sacrament by which
believers are incorporated into the body of Christ and are endowed with the
Holy Spirit. As long as the right of the baptized believers and their ministers
to participate in and preside over eucharistic celebration in one church is
called into question by those who preside over and are members of other eucharistic
congregations, the catholicity of the eucharist is less manifest. There is
discussion in many churches today about the inclusion of baptized children
as communicants at the Lord's Supper.
E20. The eucharist embraces all aspects of life. It is a representative act
of thanksgiving and offering on behalf of the whole world. The eucharistic celebration
demands reconciliation and sharing among all those regarded as brothers and
sisters in the one family Of God and is a constant challenge in the search for
appropriate relationships in social, economic and political life (Matt. 5:23f.,
I Cor. 10:16f; I Cor. 11:20-22; Gal. 3:28). All kinds of injustice, racism,
separation and lack of freedom are radically challenged when we share in the
body and blood of Christ. Through the eucharist the all-renewing grace of God
penetrates and restores human personality and dignity. The eucharist involves
the believer in the central event of the world's history. As participants in
the eucharist, therefore, we prove inconsistent if we are not actively participating
in this ongoing restoration of the world's situation and the human condition.
The eucharist shows us that our behaviour is inconsistent in face of the reconciling
presence of God in human history: we are placed under continual judgment by
the persistence of unjust relationships of all kinds in our society, the manifold
divisions on account of human pride, material interest and power politics and,
above all, the obstinacy of unjustifiable confessional oppositions within the
body of Christ.
E21. Solidarity in the eucharistic communion of the body of Christ and responsible
care of Christians for one another and the world find specific expression in
the liturgies: in the mutual forgiveness of sins; the sign of peace; intercession
for all; the eating and drinking together; the taking of the elements to the
sick and those in prison or the celebration of the eucharist with them. All
these manifestations of love in the eucharist are directly related to Christ's
own testimony as a servant, in whose servanthood Christians themselves participate.
As God in Christ has entered into the human situation, so eucharistic liturgy
is near to the concrete and particular situations of men and women. In the early
Church the ministry of deacons and deaconesses gave expression in a special
way to this aspect of the eucharist. The place of such ministry between the
table and the needy properly testifies to the redeeming presence of Christ in
E. The Eucharist as Meal of the Kingdom
E22. The eucharist opens up the vision of the divine rule which has been promised
as the final renewal of creation, and is a foretaste of it. Signs of this renewal
are present in the world wherever the grace of God is manifest and human beings
work for justice, love and peace. The eucharist is the feast at which the Church
gives thanks to God for these signs and joyfully celebrates and anticipates
the coming of the Kingdom in Christ (1 Cor. 11:26; Matt. 26:29).
E23. The world, to which renewal is promised, is present in the whole eucharistic
celebration. The world is present in the thanksgiving to the Father, where the
Church speaks on behalf of the whole creation; in the memorial of Christ, where
the Church, united with its great High Priest and Intercessor, prays for the
world; in the prayer for the gift of the Holy Spirit, where the Church asks
for sanctification and new creation.
E24. Reconciled in the eucharist, the members of the body of Christ are called
to be servants of reconciliation among men and women and witnesses of the joy
of resurrection. As Jesus went out to publicans and sinners and had table-fellowship
with them during his earthly ministry, so Christians are called in the eucharist
to be in solidarity with the outcast and to become signs of the love of Christ
who lived and sacrificed himself for all and now gives himself in the eucharist.
E25. The very celebration of the eucharist is an instance of the Church's participation
in God's mission to the world. This participation takes everyday form in the
proclamation of the Gospel, service of the neighbour, and faithful presence
in the world.
E26. As it is entirely the gift of God, the eucharist brings into the present
age a new reality which transforms Christians into the image of Christ and therefore
makes them his effective witnesses. The eucharist is precious food for missionaries,
bread and wine for pilgrims on their apostolic Journey. The eucharistic community
is nourished and strengthened for confessing by word and action the Lord Jesus
Christ who gave his life for the salvation of the world. As it becomes one people,
sharing the meal of the one Lord, the eucharistic assembly must be concerned
for gathering also those who are at present beyond its visible limits, because
Christ invited to his feast all for whom he died. Insofar as Christians cannot
unite in full fellowship around the same table to eat the same loaf and drink
from the same cup, their missionary witness is weakened at both the individual
and the corporate levels.